Indian Constitution highlights
Organized in 291 pages in the 2nd pocket edition, 2003, it is available online from India’s central portal. This guarantor of the rights of the citizens of India is something of a landmark for the reins of government and coercive power by the rulers. The Constitution of India appears to have been one of the best kept secrets of the Republic of India.
The Constitution consisted of 399 Articles ordered in 22 Parts. There have been 19 Amendments. This takes us to Page 197. There are then 12 schedules (p. 198–259), that further clarify the aforesaid 399 Articles. For example, Schedule 1 shines layer upon layer of clarifying light to demonstrate the sharp wit and keen eye of the writers and reviewers of Articles 1 and 4.
Continuing, five Appendices taking up a further 31 pages (p. 260-291).
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, have solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949.
Part I The Union And Its Territory Art.( 1-4 )
Part II Citizenship Art.( 5-11 )
Part III Fundamental Rights Art.( 12-35 )
Part IV Directive Principles Of State Policy Art.( 36-51 )
Part IVa Fundamental Duties Art.( 51a )
Part V The Union Art.( 52-151 )
Part Vi The States Art.( 152-237 )
Part Vii The States In Part B Of The First Schedule Art.( 238 )
Part Viii The Union Territories Art.( 239-243 )
Part IX Panchayats Art.( 243-243zg )
Part IXa Municipalities Art.( 243-243zg )
Part X The Scheduled And Tribal Areas Art.( 244-244a )
Part XI Relations Between The Union And The States Art.( 245-263 )
Part XII Finance, Property, Contracts And Suits Art.( 264-300a )
Part Xiii Trade,Commerce And Intercourse Within The Territory Of India Art.( 301-307 )
Part XIV Services Under The Union And The States Art.( 308-323 )
Part Xiva Tribunals Art.( 323a-323b )
Part Xv Elections Art.( 324-329a )
Part XVI Special Provisions Relating To Certain Classes Art.( 330-342 )
Part Xvii Official Language Art.( 343-351 )
Part XVIII Emergency Provisions Art.( 352-360 )
Part XIX Miscellaneous Art.( 361-367 )
Part XX Amendment Of The Constitution Art.( 368 )
Part XXI Temporary, Transitional And Special Provisions Art.( 369-392 )
Part XXII Short Title, Commencement, Auth. Text In Hindi And Repeals Art.( 393-395 )
16. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment on account of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them,
17. Abolition of Untouchability
Part III.19.(1).(e). All citizens shall have the right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
25. Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
The State can make any law: (a) regulating or restricting any economic, financial, political or other secular activity which may be associated with religious practice; and (b) providing for social welfare and reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus.
It seems that U.P. is among the first states to break the monopoly of the Congress and BJP parties, in the state legislative assembly, where political leadership in the crafting of new laws has been in the hands of parties that have been founded post 1965, a watershed year for humans, when bills for new civil rights were introduced in the US Congress and UN General Assembly, leading to the 1987 international law ratified by 98 countries:
Continuing with Cultural and Educational Rights…
29. Protection of interests of minorities.—(1) Any section of the citizens residing in the territory of India or any part thereof having a distinct language, script or culture of its own shall have the right to conserve the same.
30. All minorities, whether based on religion or language, shall have the right to establish and administer educational institutions of their choice.
292. Borrowing by the Government of India extends to borrowing upon the security of the Consolidated Fund of India
293. Borrowing by States extends to borrowing upon the security of the Consolidated Fund of the State within such limits, if any, as may from time to time be fixed by the Legislature of such State by law and to the giving of guarantees within such limits, if any, as may be so fixed.
(2) The Government of India may, make loans to any State and any sums required for the purpose of making such loans shall be charged on the Consolidated Fund of India.
(3) A State may not without the consent of the Government of India raise any loan
CHAPTER IV.—SPECIAL DIRECTIVES
350A. Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage.—It shall be the endeavour of every State and of every local authority within the State to provide adequate facilities for instruction in the mother-tongue at the primary stage of education to children belonging to linguistic minority groups; and the President may issue such directions to any State as he considers necessary or proper for securing the provision of such facilities.
350B. Special Officer for linguistic minorities.—(1) There shall be a Special Officer for linguistic minorities to be appointed by the President.
(2) It shall be the duty of the Special Officer to investigate all matters relating to the safeguards provided for linguistic minorities under this Constitution and report to the President upon those matters at such intervals as the President may direct
351. Directive for development of the Hindi language.—It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani.